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This study was carried out to determine the possible differences between the dermatoglyphic characteristics of the digit and inter-digit areas of Down Syndrome (DS) patients and healthy Nigerians. The dermatoglyphic prints of the digit and inter-digit areas were obtained by using the improvise digital method. Parameters evaluated were the digit patterns, inter-digit patterns and single flexion crease of the fifth digit. Comparison of dermal patterns in DS patients and normal ones was done using Chi-square test at a significant level of P = .05. The result of the digit patterns showed that the total mean percentage frequency for arch, radial loop, ulnar loop and whorl were 5.28%, 0.34%, 75.94% and 18.45% in DS patients and 9.55%, 1.11%, 60.11% and 29.22% in normal subjects respectively. The distribution of dermal ridge differ significantly in digits I, II and III of the right hand and digits II and III of the left hand in patients and normal subjects at P = .05 level. Down syndrome patients had more of open fields in all the inter-digit areas except in inter-digit C. The difference in patterns between DS patients and normal subjects was significant in inter-digit C and D of the left hand only. One normal subject had single flexion crease compared to four in Down syndrome patients. The findings of the study could be used as supplementary diagnostic aid for Down syndrome.
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