Ecological Studies and Epidemiological Aspects of Leptospirosis in the Northeast Region of Brazil

Brenda Vitória Machado Amorim

Unidade de Ensino Superior de Feira de Santana, Brazil.

Gabriella Mascarenhas Cova

Unidade de Ensino Superior de Feira de Santana, Brazil.

Carlos Danilo Cardoso Matos Silva

Unidade de Ensino Superior de Feira de Santana, Brazil.

João Ronaldo Tavares de Vasconcellos Neto *

Unidade de Ensino Superior de Feira de Santana, Brazil.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Abstract

Introduction: Leptospirosis, a globally prevalent zoonotic infection, affects approximately one million people annually. Originating from the bacterium Leptospira, it is transmitted through contact with the urine of reservoir animals, such as rodents. In Brazil, it is endemic, especially in the Northeast region, where poor sanitary conditions contribute to its dissemination. The objective of this study is to analyze the main determining factors for the increase in leptospirosis cases in the Northeast region of Brazil, with an emphasis on rainfall patterns and deficiencies in basic sanitation.

Methodology: The methodology consisted of a qualitative exploratory-descriptive bibliographic review of articles published between 2014 and 2024 in Portuguese, English, and Spanish. Inclusion criteria were relevance to the topic, while exclusion criteria involved duplicated articles or those that did not highlight the content of interest. The search was conducted in databases such as LILACS, SciELO, and PubMed, using specific descriptors. The analysis involved careful selection and exhaustive reading for the categorization of results.

Results and Discussion: Leptospirosis impacts urban and poor areas, with over one million annual cases globally. Factors such as precipitation and disordered urbanization contribute to its spread, especially in tropical regions. Low-income populations are vulnerable due to the lack of basic sanitation. The unequal distribution reflects socio-economic disparities, with densely populated urban areas being more affected.

Conclusion: Leptospirosis poses a challenge to public health, especially in regions with poor sanitary conditions. Effective control requires a comprehensive approach, including improvements in sanitation infrastructure, health education, and rodent control.

Keywords: Leptospirosis, zoonosis, North East of Brazil, sanitation, surveillance


How to Cite

Amorim, Brenda Vitória Machado, Gabriella Mascarenhas Cova, Carlos Danilo Cardoso Matos Silva, and João Ronaldo Tavares de Vasconcellos Neto. 2024. “Ecological Studies and Epidemiological Aspects of Leptospirosis in the Northeast Region of Brazil”. Asian Journal of Medicine and Health 22 (7):45-53. https://doi.org/10.9734/ajmah/2024/v22i71044.

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