Evaluation of In-vitro Anti-Inflammatory, Anti-Fungal, Thrombolytic, Membrane Stabilizing and Cytotoxic Properties of (Camellia chrysantha Hu Tuyama)

Irfanul Islam Takey

Department of Pharmacy, Stamford University Bangladesh, Dhaka, Bangladesh.

Hasib Khan Shomudro

Department of Pharmacy, Stamford University Bangladesh, Dhaka, Bangladesh.

Sadia Afreen Chowdhury *

Department of Pharmacy, Stamford University Bangladesh, Dhaka, Bangladesh.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Abstract

The current study was set out to look into the anti-inflammatory, anti-fungal, cytotoxic, thrombolytic and membrane stabilizing activities of the methanolic extract from the leaf of Camellia chrysantha (Hu) Tuyama (MECCL). Primary evaluation of MECCL was performed via phytochemical screening.  Phytochemical analysis of the leaf extract revealed the presence of reducing sugar, flavonoids, alkaloids, and steroids. Anti-inflammatory activity test was done using egg albumin denaturation assay. In the result of MECCL’s anti-inflammatory test showed 88.88% compared to the standard acetyl salicylic acid 98.56%. The anti-fungal activity test was performed by Disc Diffusion method using zone of inhibition against four fungi. MECCL showed moderate antifungal activity compared to standard Griseofulvin against Aspergillus niger, Saccharomyces cerevisiae (yeast), Penicillium notatum. Zones of inhibition of the fungi Aspergillus niger, Saccharomyces cerevisiae (yeast), Penicillium notatum is 11mm, 14mm and 14mm at the concentration of 700 µg/disc, which is close to the standard Griseofulvin 19mm, 20mm, and 21mm respectively at 50 µg/disc concentration. Mucor hiemalis showed mild zone of inhibition in 300, 500, and 700 µg/disc (7mm). Brine Shrimp lethality bioassay method was used to test the lethality of the methanolic leaf extract. The extract showed significant cytotoxic activity against brine shrimp nauplii with LC50 value of 0.843 µg/mL when compared with the standard Vincristine sulphate (LC50 value: 0.608 µg/mL). Comparison with positive control Vincristine sulphate signifies that cytotoxicity exhibited by MECCL and further bioactivity guided investigation can be done to find potent antitumor compounds. In thrombolytic activity test, MECCL demonstrated 95.69% thrombolysis which was significant compared to standard Streptokinase (SK) which demonstrated 91.304 % thrombolysis. While doing membrane stabilizing activity test, Heat induced hemolysis assay was performed and the percent of protection was 85.35 compared to the standard DS 73.63 which was very significant. The results highlight the potential of Camellia chrysantha (Hu) Tuyama as a valuable source of phytochemicals that possess notable anti-inflammatory, thrombolytic, and membrane-stabilizing properties. The methanolic leaf extract also shows moderate antifungal and cytotoxic effects, suggesting potential for future therapeutic advancements.

Keywords: Camellia chrysantha (Hu) Tuyama, anti-inflammatory, antifungal, hemolysis, thrombolytic, MECCL


How to Cite

Takey, Irfanul Islam, Hasib Khan Shomudro, and Sadia Afreen Chowdhury. 2024. “Evaluation of In-Vitro Anti-Inflammatory, Anti-Fungal, Thrombolytic, Membrane Stabilizing and Cytotoxic Properties of (Camellia Chrysantha Hu Tuyama)”. Asian Journal of Medicine and Health 22 (7):36-44. https://doi.org/10.9734/ajmah/2024/v22i71043.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Usman H. et al. Levels of Castor Oil-Induced Diarrhoea in Rats Treated with Leaf Extract of Corchorus olitorius Linn and Aerial Part Extract of Scoporia dulcis Linn, Adv. J. Chem. Sect. A. 2020;3(1):1–8. DOI:10.33945/SAMI/AJCA.2020.1.1.

Barragan-galvez JC. et al. In vivo Neuropharmacological Effects of Neophytadiene; 2023. DOI:10.3390/molecules28083457.

Van NTH. et al. Flavonoids Isolated From the Flowers of Camellia Chrysantha, Vietnam J. Sci. Technol. 2019;57(3):287–293. DOI:10.15625/2525-2518/57/3/12721.

Bin Wei J. et al. Characterization and determination of antioxidant components in the leaves of Camellia chrysantha (Hu) Tuyama based on composition-activity relationship approach, J. Food Drug Anal. 2015;23(1):40–48.

DOI:10.1016/j.jfda.2014.02.003.

Osamudiamen PM, Aiyelaagbe OO, Vaid S, Sangwan PL, Ogbesejana AB, Saxen AK. Comparative in-vitro anticancer and brine shrimp cytotoxic activities of Mezoneuron benthamianum Baill., J. Med. Plants Econ. Dev. 2020;4(1):1–5. DOI:10.4102/jomped.v4i1.73.

Twaij BM, Hasan MN, Bioactive Secondary Metabolites from Plant Sources: Types, Synthesis, and Their Therapeutic Uses, Int. J. Plant Biol. 2022;13(1):4–14. DOI:10.3390/ijpb13010003.

Farag RS, Abdel-Latif MS, Abd El Baky HH, Tawfeek LS, Phytochemical screening and antioxidant activity of some medicinal plants’ crude juices, Biotechnol. Reports, 2020;28:e00536. DOI:10.1016/j.btre.2020.e00536.

Daram P, Jitta SR, Shreedhara CS, Misra CS, Gourishetti K, Lobo R. Investigation of anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic potentials of Terminalia catappa bark using In vitro assays and carrageenan-induced inflammation, complete Freund’s adjuvant induced arthritis model in rats, South African J. Bot. 2021;141:313–321. DOI:10.1016/j.sajb.2021.05.010.

Muñoz Castellanos L. et al. In Vitro and in Vivo Antifungal Activity of Clove (Eugenia caryophyllata) and Pepper (Piper nigrum L.) Essential Oils and Functional Extracts against Fusarium oxysporum and Aspergillus niger in Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.), Int. J. Microbiol. 2020;2020. DOI:10.1155/2020/1702037.

Indriaty I, Ginting B, Hasballah K, Djufri. Assessment cytotoxic assay of Rhizophora plants mangrove using brine shrimp (Artemia salina L) model, IOP Conf. Ser. Earth Environ. Sci. 2022;951(1). DOI:10.1088/1755-1315/951/1/012070.

Uddin MZ, Rifat AB, Mitu FY, Haque T, Mazid MA, Thrombolytic Potentials of Some Medicinal Plants Used by the Local People for Cardiovascular Diseases in Bangladesh, Bangladesh J. Plant Taxon. 2021;28(2):405–412.

DOI:10.3329/bjpt.v28i2.57136.

Yesmin S. et al. Membrane stabilization as a mechanism of the anti-inflammatory activity of ethanolic root extract of Choi (Piper chaba), Clin. Phytoscience. 2020;6(1). DOI:10.1186/s40816-020-00207-7.

Shaikh JR, Patil M. Qualitative tests for preliminary phytochemical screening: An overview, Int. J. Chem. Stud. 2020; 8(2):603–608. DOI:10.22271/chemi.2020.v8.i2i.8834.

Ma ZF, Zhang H. Phytochemical constituents, health benefits, and industrial applications of grape seeds: Amini-review, Antioxidants, 2017;6(3):1– 11. DOI:10.3390/antiox6030071.

Conforti F. et al. In vivo anti-inflammatory and in vitro antioxidant activities of Mediterranean dietary plants, J. Ethnopharmacol. 2008;116(1):144–151. DOI:10.1016/j.jep.2007.11.015.

Gokhale AB, Damre AS, Kulkarni KR, Saraf MN. Preliminary evaluation of anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic activity of S. lappa, A. speciosa and A. aspera, Phytomedicine. 2002;9(5):433–437. DOI:10.1078/09447110260571689.

Helal NM, Ibrahim NA, Khattab H. Phytochemical analysis and antifungal bioactivity of Pulicaria undulata (L.) methanolic extract and essential oil, Egypt. J. Bot. 2019;59(3):827–844. DOI:10.21608/ejbo.2019.12259.1308.

Mohamed AA, Behiry SI, Ali HM, El-Hefny M, Salem MZM, Ashmawy NA, Phytochemical compounds of branches from p. halepensis oily liquid extract and s. terebinthifolius essential oil and their potential antifungal activity, Processes. 2020;8(3). DOI:10.3390/pr8030330.

Samanta SK. et al. Phytochemical portfolio and anticancer activity of Murraya koenigii and its primary active component, mahanine, Pharmacol. Res. 2018; 129:227–236. DOI:10.1016/j.phrs.2017.11.024.

KUNWAR B, JAIN V, VERMA SK, In vitro thrombolytic activity of Moringa oleifera, Nusant. Biosci. 2022;14(1):63–69.

DOI:10.13057/nusbiosci/n140108.

Wang JH, Luan F, He XD, Wang Y, Li MX. Traditional uses and pharmacological properties of Clerodendrum phytochemicals, J. Tradit. Complement. Med. 2018;8(1):24–38. DOI:10.1016/j.jtcme.2017.04.001.