Ameliorative Histological Effects of Aqueous Neem Leaf Extract (Azadirachta indica) on Lead Induced Neurotoxicity of Lateral Geniculate Body of Adult Wistar Rats

P.B Fakunle

Department of Anatomy, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomosho Oyo State, Nigeria.

S.E Ehiremen *

Department of Anatomy, College of Health Sciences, Olabisi Onabanjo University, Ago-Iwoye, Nigeria.

D. O Taiwo-Ola

Department of Anatomy, College of Health Sciences, Olabisi Onabanjo University, Ago-Iwoye, Nigeria.

O D Akanji

Department of Anatomy, College of Health Sciences, Olabisi Onabanjo University, Ago-Iwoye, Nigeria.

O.A Onakoya

Department of Anatomy, College of Health Sciences, Olabisi Onabanjo University, Ago-Iwoye, Nigeria.

M. K Oladejo

Department of Anatomy, College of Health Sciences, Olabisi Onabanjo University, Ago-Iwoye, Nigeria.

E. A Oladapo

Department of Histopathology/Morbid Anatomy, Olabisi Onabanjo University Teaching Hospital Sagamu, Ogun State, Nigeria.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Abstract

Introduction: Lead exposure remains a significant public health burden across the globe, impacting millions of individuals and posing a major threat to nervous system development and function. Among the vulnerable targets of lead's neurotoxic assault is the lateral geniculate body (LGB), a crucial relay station within the visual pathway. This brain region acts as a gateway for visual information, processing signals from the retina and transmitting them to the visual cortex for interpretation.

Aim: This study seeks to investigate the potential neuroprotective effects of aqueous Azadirachta indica (Neem leaf) extract against lead-induced neurotoxicity in the LGN of adult rats.

Methods: Twenty (20) adult wistar rats weighing 150-200g were randomly grouped into four(4) (A-D, n=5). Group A Normal control Group B received (70mg/kg)(Orally) Lead only, Group C received (200mg/kg)(Orally) Azadirachta indica (Neem leaf), Group D received (70mg/kg Lead and 200mg/k Azadirachta indica)(Orally). Alterations in the relative weight of the LGB were determined, and antioxidant status was assessed by measuring Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) and Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH) levels. The effects of neem leaf extract on lactate dehydrogenase were also evaluated. Additionally, histological changes in the cerebellum due to lead exposure were examined using H&E and Cresyl Violet staining.

Results: Lead exposure led to alterations in the relative weight of the LGB, SOD and CAT level was significantly (P,<0.005) reduced compared to the control, while the LDH was significantly increased(P.>0.005) and disruptions in lactate dehydrogenase activity. Aqueous neem leaf extract administration showed potential ameliorative effects mitigating these alterations and histological examination revealed ameliorative changes in the LGB associated with lead exposure.

The study highlights the potential neuroprotective effects of aqueous neem leaf extract against lead-induced neurotoxicity, emphasizing its role in mitigating oxidative stress and preserving histological integrity in the LGN. Insights into the effects of neem on carbohydrate metabolism enzymes and cerebellar histology contribute to a comprehensive understanding of its therapeutic potential.

Keywords: Azadirachta indica, lateral geniculate body, Neurotoxicity, lead exposure, lactate dehydrogenase


How to Cite

Fakunle, P., Ehiremen, S., Taiwo-Ola, D. O., Akanji, O. D., Onakoya , O., Oladejo , M. K., & Oladapo , E. A. (2024). Ameliorative Histological Effects of Aqueous Neem Leaf Extract (Azadirachta indica) on Lead Induced Neurotoxicity of Lateral Geniculate Body of Adult Wistar Rats. Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, 22(6), 127–139. https://doi.org/10.9734/ajmah/2024/v22i61028

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