Variation in Sleep Traits in the Indian Population During Social Restriction

Saurabh Jaiswal

Department of Zoology, University of Lucknow, Lucknow 226007, India.

Nishi Soni

Department of Zoology, University of Lucknow, Lucknow 226007, India.

Arjita Yadav

Department of Zoology, University of Lucknow, Lucknow 226007, India.

Sudhir Kumar

Department of Zoology, University of Lucknow, Lucknow 226007, India.

Shalie Malik

Department of Zoology, University of Lucknow, Lucknow 226007, India.

Sangeeta Rani *

Department of Zoology, University of Lucknow, Lucknow 226007, India.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Aim: We conducted this study to investigate the impact of social restrictions on chronotype categories, social jetlag, and sleep parameters in the Indian population.

Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2021 with 139 participants. We used an online questionnaire (Google Form) enclosing respondents' sociodemographic information Social jetlag and sleep parameters were measured with the µ-MCTQ and chronotype was assessed by the r-MEQ. Chi-square, paired t-tests, and One-way ANOVA were used to analyse the data. Pearson correlation was used to determine the strength of the relationship between the variables.

Results: Our results highlighted that a total of 23.8% of volunteers reported social jetlag before social restriction and it significantly reduced to 13.7% (P = .001) in the social restricted condition. There is no significant difference in sleep duration during the workday and free days of socially restriction (P = .11). We found a difference between midsleep free day (MSf) and midsleep free day corrected (MSfsc) (mean of 13 min before restrictions (P = .05) and 10 min during restrictions; P = .001).

Conclusion: Our findings provide crucial insights into variations in sleep/wake schedule stability, as seen by changes in the decrease of social jetlag between restriction. It was established that the individuals had significantly equivalent total sleep at both time points, as well as a later sleep-wake time under the social restriction.

Keywords: Chronotype, sleep, social jetlag, social restrictions

How to Cite

Jaiswal , S., Soni , N., Yadav , A., Kumar , S., Malik , S., & Rani , S. (2024). Variation in Sleep Traits in the Indian Population During Social Restriction. Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, 22(6), 116–126.


Download data is not yet available.


Dijk DJ, Von Schantz M. Timing and consolidation of human sleep, wakefulness, and performance by a symphony of oscillators. J Biol Rhythms. 2005;20(4):279-290. DOI: 10.1177/0748730405278292

Roenneberg T, Merrow M. The circadian clock and human health. Current Biology. 2016;26(10):R432-R443. DOI: 10.1016/j.cub.2016.04.011

Kronfeld-Schor N, Visser ME, Salis L, van Gils JA. Chronobiology of interspecific interactions in a changing world. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 2017; 372(1734).

DOI: 10.1098/rstb.2016.0248

Eban-Rothschild A, Giardino WJ, de Lecea L. To sleep or not to sleep: neuronal and ecological insights. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 2017;44:132-138. DOI: 10.1016/j.conb.2017.04.010

Borbély AA, Daan S, Wirz-Justice A, Deboer T. The two-process model of sleep regulation: A reappraisal. J Sleep Res. 2016;25(2):131-143. DOI: 10.1111/jsr.12371

Inokawa H, Umemura Y, Shimba A, et al. Chronic circadian misalignment accelerates immune senescence and abbreviates lifespan in mice. Sci Rep. 2020;10(1). DOI: 10.1038/s41598-020-59541-y

Vetter C. Circadian disruption: What do we actually mean? European Journal of Neuroscience. 2020;51(1):531-550. DOI: 10.1111/ejn.14255

Eisenstein M. Chronobiology: Stepping out of time. Nature. 2013;497(7450):S10-S12. DOI: 10.1038/497S10a

Baron KG, Reid KJ. Circadian misalignment and health. International Review of Psychiatry. 2014;26(2):139-154. DOI: 10.3109/09540261.2014.911149

Sletten TL, Cappuccio FP, Davidson AJ, Van Cauter E, Rajaratnam SMW, Scheer FAJL. Health consequences of circadian disruption. Sleep. 2020;43(1). DOI: 10.1093/sleep/zsz194

Chellappa SL, Morris CJ, Scheer FAJL. Effects of circadian misalignment on cognition in chronic shift workers. Sci Rep. 2019;9(1). DOI: 10.1038/s41598-018-36762-w

Taillard J, Sagaspe P, Philip P, Bioulac S. Sleep timing, chronotype and social jetlag: Impact on cognitive abilities and psychiatric disorders. Biochem Pharmacol. 2021;191.

DOI: 10.1016/j.bcp.2021.114438

Roepke SE, Duffy JF. Differential impact of chronotype on weekday and weekend sleep timing and duration. Nat Sci Sleep. 2010;2:213-220. DOI: 10.2147/NSS.S12572

Fortunato VJ, Harsh J. Stress and sleep quality: The moderating role of negative affectivity. Pers Individ Dif. 2006;41(5):825-836. DOI: 10.1016/j.paid.2006.03.024

Blume C, Schmidt MH, Cajochen C. Effects of the COVID-19 lockdown on human sleep and rest-activity rhythms. Current Biology. 2020;30(14): R795-R797. DOI: 10.1016/j.cub.2020.06.021

Leone MJ, Sigman M, Golombek DA. Effects of lockdown on human sleep and chronotype during the COVID-19 pandemic. Current Biology. 2020;30(16): R930-R931. DOI: 10.1016/j.cub.2020.07.015

Tang NKY, Fiecas M, Afolalu EF, Wolke D. Changes in sleep duration, quality, and medication use are prospectively associated with health and well-being: Analysis of the UK household longitudinal study. Sleep. 2017;40(3) DOI:10.1093/sleep/zsw079

Brooks SK, Webster RK, Smith LE, et al. The psychological impact of quarantine and how to reduce it: rapid review of the evidence. The Lancet. 2020;395(10227): 912-920. DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30460-8

Fiorillo A, Gorwood P. The consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic on mental health and implications for clinical practice. European Psychiatry. 2020;63(1). DOI: 10.1192/j.eurpsy.2020.35

Roenneberg T, Allebrandt K V., Merrow M, Vetter C. Social jetlag and obesity. Current Biology. 2012;22(10):939-943. DOI: 10.1016/j.cub.2012.03.038

Roenneberg T, Pilz LK, Zerbini G, Winnebeck EC. Chronotype and social jetlag: A (self-) critical review. Biology (Basel). 2019;8(3). DOI: 10.3390/biology8030054

Roenneberg T, Merrow M. Entrainment of the Human Circadian Clock. Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol. 2007;72(1):293-299. DOI: 10.1101/sqb.2007.72.043

Adan A, Archer SN, Hidalgo MP, Di Milia L, Natale V, Randler C. Circadian typology: A comprehensive review. Chronobiol Int. 2012;29(9):1153-1175. DOI: 10.3109/07420528.2012.719971

Raman S, Coogan AN. Closing the Loop Between Circadian Rhythms, Sleep, and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. In: Handbook of Behavioral Neuroscience. Elsevier B.V.; 2019;30:707-716. DOI: 10.1016/B978-0-12-813743-7.00047-5

Ghotbi N, Pilz LK, Winnebeck EC, et al. The µMCTQ: An Ultra-Short Version of the Munich ChronoType Questionnaire. J Biol Rhythms. 2020;35(1):98-110. DOI: 10.1177/0748730419886986

Roenneberg T, Wirz-Justice A, Merrow M. Life between Clocks: Daily Temporal Patterns of Human Chronotypes. J Biol Rhythms. 2003;18(1):80-90. DOI: 10.1177/0748730402239679

Wittmann M, Dinich J, Merrow M, Roenneberg T. Social Jetlag: Misalignment of Biological and Social Time. Chronobiol Int. 2006;23(1-2):497-509. DOI: 10.1080/07420520500545979

Levandovski R, Sasso E, Hidalgo MP. Chronotype: a review of the advances, limits and applicability of the main instruments used in the literature to assess human phenotype. Trends Psychiatry Psychother. 2013;35(1):3-11. DOI: 10.1590/S2237-60892013000100002

Roenneberg T, Merrow M. Entrainment of the Human Circadian Clock. Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol. 2007;72(1):293-299. DOI: 10.1101/sqb.2007.72.043

Dwivedi A, Jaiswal S, Moral Kumar A, Malik S, Rani S. Association of social jetlag with sleep, breakfast jetlag, and other daily behaviors in Indian population. RESEARCH REVIEW International Journal of Multidisciplinary. 2021;6(4). DOI: 10.31305/rrijm.2021.v06.i04.016

Adan A, Almirall H. Horne & Östberg morningness-eveningness questionnaire: A reduced scale. Pers Individ Dif. 1991;12(3):241-253. DOI: 10.1016/0191-8869(91)90110-W

Horne JA, Ostberg O. A Self Assessment Questionnaire to Determine Morningness Eveningness in Human Circadian Rhythms. 1976;5 Available:

Kim HY. Statistical notes for clinical researchers: assessing normal distribution (2) using skewness and kurtosis. Restor Dent Endod. 2013;38(1):52-54. DOI: 10.5395/rde.2013.38.1.52

Jaiswal S, Soni N, Sirohi BP, Kumar S, Malik S, Rani S. Forced Social Isolation leads to Smartphone Addiction and Depression. RESEARCH REVIEW International Journal of Multidisciplinary. 2024;9(3):38-47. DOI: 10.31305/rrijm.2024.v09.n03.004

Korman M, Tkachev V, Reis C, et al. COVID-19-mandated social restrictions unveil the impact of social time pressure on sleep and body clock. Sci Rep. 2020;10(1). DOI: 10.1038/s41598-020-79299-7

Sinha M, Pande B, Sinha R. Impact of COVID-19 Lockdown on Sleep-Wake Schedule and Associated Lifestyle Related Behavior: A National Survey. 2020;9. Available:

Cal-Kayitmazbatir S. Türk Fen ve Sağlık Dergisi Turkish Journal of Science and Health COVID-19 Pandemisinin Türk İnsanlarının Sirkadiyen Ritmine ve Yaşam Kalitesine Etkisi Available:

Bonaccorsi G, Pierri F, Cinelli M, et al. Economic and social consequences of human mobility restrictions under COVID-19. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 2020;117(27):1553 0-15535. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2007658117

Gupta R, Grover S, Basu A, et al. Changes in sleep pattern and sleep quality during COVID-19 lockdown. Indian J Psychiatry. 2020;62(4):370-378. DOI: 10.4103/psychiatry.IndianJPsychiatry _523_20

Kelly RM, Healy U, Sreenan S, McDermott JH, Coogan AN. Clocks in the clinic: Circadian rhythms in health and disease. Postgrad Med J. 2018;94(1117): 653- 658. DOI: 10.1136/postgradmedj-2018-135719

McGowan NM, Voinescu BI, Coogan AN. Sleep quality, chronotype and social jetlag differentially associate with symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in adults. Chronobiol Int. 2016 ;33(10):1433-1443. DOI: 10.1080/07420528.2016.1208214

Chang SJ, Jang SJ. Social jetlag and quality of life among nursing students: A cross-sectional study. J Adv Nurs. 2019; 75(7):1418-1426. DOI: 10.1111/jan.13857

Yuan RK, Zitting KM, Maskati L, Huang J. Increased sleep duration and delayed sleep timing during the COVID-19 pandemic. Sci Rep. 2022; 12(1). DOI: 10.1038/s41598-022-14782-x

Janati Idrissi A, Lamkaddem A, Benouajjit A, et al. Sleep quality and mental health in the context of COVID-19 pandemic and lockdown in Morocco. Sleep Med. 2020;74:248-253. DOI: 10.1016/j.sleep.2020.07.045

Richter SA, Ferraz‐Rodrigues C, Schilling LB, Camargo NF, Nunes ML. Effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on sleep quality in children and adolescents: A systematic review and meta-analysis. J Sleep Res. 2023; 32(1). DOI: 10.1111/jsr.13720

Gruber R, Saha S, Somerville G, Boursier J, Wise MS. The impact of COVID-19 related school shutdown on sleep in adolescents: a natural experiment. Sleep Med. 2020;76:33-35. DOI: 10.1016/j.sleep.2020.09.015