Comparative Study of Fetomaternal Outcome in Abruptio Placenta and Placenta Previa

Farhana Islam

Gynae and Obstretics Department, Akij Ad-din Medical College and Hospital, Boyra, Khulna, Bangladesh.

Shahid Hossain Md. Nur Afzal

Rajshahi Police Hospital, Rajshahi, Bangladesh.

Rina Haider

Department of Gynae and Obstetrics, Square Hospitals Limited, Dhaka, Bangladesh.

Farhana Karim

Paediatrics and Neonatology Department, Akij Ad Din Medical College and Hospital, Boyra, Khulna, Bangladesh.

Sayeda Farzana Yesmin

Gynae and Obstretics Department, Akij Ad-din Medical College and Hospital, Boyra, Khulna, Bangladesh.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Abstract

Background: Abruptio placenta and placenta previa are obstetric complications associated with significant risks for both the fetus and the mother, potentially leading to severe hemorrhage, preterm birth, and maternal shock. Early detection and prompt medical intervention are crucial for optimizing outcomes and reducing maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality.

Objective: The study aims to analyze the maternal and perinatal outcomes of APH cases due to placenta previa and abruptio placenta.

Methods: This prospective study conducted at Ad Din Akij Medical College, Boyra, Khulna July 1, 2021, to June 30, 2023, included 150 APH cases, with 109 meeting inclusion criteria for comparison between placenta previa and abruptio placenta. Data collection encompassed  maternal demographics, obstetric history, severity of hemorrhage, and neonatal outcomes. Diagnosis was based on clinical evaluation and ultrasound. Statistical analysis was performed using MS Excel.

Results: In our Study, the distribution of causes of placental issues reveals that Placenta Previa accounts for the majority, comprising 71.55% of cases, while Abruptio Placentae represents 28.44% of instances. Placenta Previa predominantly affects individuals aged 26-30 years and over 35 years, with the highest occurrence among those with 2 pregnancies. Conversely, Abruptio Placentae shows a varied distribution across age groups, with the highest incidence among those aged 31-35 years and with gravidity of 1 pregnancy. Gestationally, the majority of Abruptio Placentae cases present between 31-33 weeks, while Placenta Previa cases peak at 34-36.6 weeks. Preterm births are prevalent in both conditions, with Placenta Previa leading in preterm deliveries. Placenta Previa is associated with a history of abortion and dilation and curettage (D&C), while hypertension is a significant risk factor for Abruptio Placentae. Maternal complications include anemia, postpartum hemorrhage (PPH), and shock, with Placenta Previa being associated with anemia and PPH, while Abruptio Placentae correlated with shock.

Conclusion: Placenta previa emerged as the primary cause of APH, affecting multiparous women, while abruptio placenta correlated with hypertension and primigravida. Both conditions posed significant risks of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality, highlighting the importance of prompt diagnosis and intervention.

Keywords: Antepartum hemorrhage, placenta previa, abruptio placenta, maternal outcomes, perinatal outcomes


How to Cite

Islam, F., Afzal, S. H. M. N., Haider, R., Karim, F., & Yesmin, S. F. (2024). Comparative Study of Fetomaternal Outcome in Abruptio Placenta and Placenta Previa. Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, 22(6), 19–29. https://doi.org/10.9734/ajmah/2024/v22i61016

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