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Background: Interstitial lung diseases present with diverse clinical, radiological and histological characteristics, yet have significant overlapping features. Different ILDs have different outcomes and need correct diagnosis for appropriate management. UIP, NSIP and sarcoidosis are the most common types. Other important types being COP, RB-ILD, HSP and ILD associated with connective disorders.
Objective: To identify patterns and distributions of imaging findings on HRCT for accurate diagnosis of type of ILDs. HRCT of known cases of ILD was done and predominant imaging features of ILDs documented. We had 75 patients in our study group with male predominance (58.6%). UIP was the most common type of ILD with honeycombing, septal thickening and bronchiectasis as the predominant imaging features with sparse ground glassing. Sarcoidosis was the second most common type of ILD with mediastinal and hilar LAP, perilymphatic nodules, fibrotic bands, septal thickening and bronchiectasis as predominant imaging findings. NSIP presented with ground glassing, septal thickening, bronchiectasis, and fibrotic bands as predominant features with no or minimal honeycombing. RB-ILD presented with predominant imaging features of peribronchial thickening, centrilobular nodules, air trapping and fibrotic bands in known smokers. COP presented with predominant imaging features of peripheral consolidations and ground glassings, septal thickenings and bronchiectasis. Lung biopsy is god standard but cannot be performed in every patients owing to higher rates of complication. HRCT has assumed importance in diagnosis and management of ILDs and are relatively specific in its diagnosis.