Main Article Content
Introduction: Plants are known to contain numerous phytochemicals with potential antimicrobial activity.
Aim: Nutritional, phytochemical and antimicrobial activities of the leaves and the fruit pulp extracts of Tetrapluera tetraptera was carried out.
Methodology: Collection and identification of isolates and plants parts, and preparation of extracts and nutrient (proximate, vitamins and minerals and anti-nutrients) evaluations were all done using standard protocols previously reported. Evaluations of phytochemicals were carried out using crude screening, quantification and gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrophotometer for a robust analysis. Antimicrobial activities were evaluated using the standard disc method and chloramphenicol as control.
Results: The results revealed varying amounts of proximate nutrients (ash, fibre, moisture, carbohydrate, protein and fat) in both samples. Vitamin analysis showed the presence of vitamin A, total and soluble vitamin C, niacin, riboflavin and thiamin in both samples. Furthermore, both samples had minerals such as Na, K, CA, P, Mg, Zn, Fe, and Cu, and K, Na, Ca, Mg, P, Fe, Zn and Cu in order of decreasing abundance in the fruit pulp and leaves, respectively. Both samples showed the presence of permissible levels of anti-nutrients compared to edible vegetables. Using all three methods, several phytochemicals such as terpenes, alkaloids, flavonoids, polyphenol, organic and fatty acids, amongst other in various amounts were obtained in the samples. Antimicrobial activities against identified clinical isolates used in this study which were Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Proteus spp with both extracts ranged from 12.78±0.03 to 17.34±0.34 mm.
Conclusion: Given the rising cases of antimicrobial resistance and absence of newer antibiotics, the antimicrobial activity of our study plant is worth further evaluations.
Allkin B, Willis KJ. Useful pants – Medicines: At least 28,187 plant species are currently recorded as being of medicinal use in: State of the world's plants 2017. London (UK): Royal botanic gardens, kew; 2017. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK464488/
Andy IE, Ebana RUB, Edet UO, Anosike IK, Mbim E, Benjamin AU. Nutritional studies and antimicrobial activities of Jatropha tanjorensis leaves extract against E.coli isolates. Intl journal of innovative science and technology. 2019;4(8):945-955.
Ebana, RUB, Edet UO, Anosike IK, Etok CA. Bdellovibrio and like organisms: The much anticipated “magic bullet”. World News of Natural Sciences. 2019;23:233-249.
Achi OK. Composition and antibacterial activites of Tetrapleura tetraptera taub. Pod extracts. Research Journal of Microbiology. 2006;1(5):416-422.
Adusei S, Otchere JK, Oteng P, Mensah RO Phytochemical analysis, antioxidant and metal chelating capacity of Tetrapleura tetraptera. Heliyon. 2019;(5):e02762
Ekwenye UN, Okorie CF. Antibacterial activity of Tetrapleura tetraptera taub.pod extracts. International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences. 2010;1(4):735-741.
Ebana RUB, Etok CA, Edet UO. Antimicrobial Activity, phytochemical screening and nutrient analysis of Tetrapleura tetraptera and Piper guineense. Asian Journal of medicine and Health. 2016;1(3):1-8.
Ebana RUB, Edet UO, Ekanemesang UM, Ikon GM, Etok CA, Edet AP. Antimicrobial activity, phytochemical screening and nutrient analysis of Tetrapleura tetraptera and Piper guineense. Asian Journal of Medicine and Health. 2016;1:1–8.
Godfrey N E. Proximate and phytochemical composition of the pulp of tetrapleura tetraptera fruits consumed in Abakaliki, Nigeria. International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology (IJERT). 2015:4(60);1286-1294.
Ogugor JC, Ayuk EL, Osuji AS, Ugwu MO, Unaegbu ME. Phytochemical, antimicrobial, proximate and heavy metals analysis of extracts of the bark of Tetrapleura tetraptera fruit. Global Scientific Journals. 2018;8(12):1-15.
Ezeonu CS, Nwokwu CDU, Kadiri B. Comparative physico-chemical analysis of locally brewed beer (Burukutu) from corn, millet and sorghum. Am. J. Sci. Technol. 2017;3:43–48.
Adadi P, Kanwugu ON. Potential application of tetrapleura tetraptera and hibiscus sabdari_a (malvaceae) in designing highly flavoured and bioactive pitowith functional properties beverages. 2020;6:22.
Njimoh DL, Assob JCN, Mokake SE, Nyhalah DJ, Yinda CK. and Sandjon B. Antimicrobial activities of a plethora of medicinal plant extracts and hydrolates against human pathogens and their potential to reverse antibiotic resistance. International Journal of Microbiology. 2015;547156.
Holt JG, Kreig NR, Sneath PHA, Stanley JT, Stanley, ST. Bergey’s Manual of Determinative Bacteriology. Baltimore, USA. Williams and Wilkins;1994.
Cheesebrough M. District laboratory practice in tropical countries Cambridge. Cambridge University Press;1998.
Ebana RUB, Essien AI, Ekpa OD. Nutritional and potential medicinal values of the leaves Lasianthera africana (BEAUV). Global Journal of Pure Science. 1995;1(1-2):1-8.
Ebana RUB, Etok CA, Edet UO. Phytochemical screening and antimicrobial activity of Nypa fruticans harvested from Oporo river in the Niger delta region of Nigeria. International Journal of Innovation and Applied Studies. 2015;10(4):1120- 1124.
Cuilei J. Methodology of analysis of vegetable drugs: Practice manual on the industrial utilization of medicinal and Aromatic plants. 1984;66-67.
Harbone JB. Phytochemical methods, a guide to modern techniques in plant analysis;1973.
AOAC (Association of official analytical Chemistry). Annual meeting and exposition;2002.
AOAC. Official methods of analysis -17tth ed. association of official analytical chemist, Aryland;2002.
Ball GFM. Bioavailability and analysis of vitamins in foods. London: Chapman and Hall;1998.
Bender AD. Nutritional biochemistry of vitamins. Cambridge University Press, London; 2003.
Bender AD. An introduction to nutrition and metabolism. University College, London press limited, London. 1993;182-182.
Bessy OA, Lowry OH, Brocke MS. Lopper JA. Determiantion of vitamin A in small quantities of blood stream. Journal of Biological Chemistry. 1946;166:177.
Bessy OA. Determination of ascorbic acid by titrimetric method. Journal Association Office Agric. Chemist. 1944;27:537.
Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). Performance standards for antimicrobial susceptibility testing; Twenty- fourth informational supplement, M100- S24. PA, USA, Wayne; 2014.
Ogbunugafor HA, Ugochukwu CG, Kyrian-Ogbonna AE. The role of spices in nutrition and health: A review of three popular spices used in Southern Nigeria. Food Quality and Safety. 2017;1(3):171–185.
Ajiboye TO, Iliasu GA, Adeleye AO, Abdussalam FA, Akinpelu SA, Ogunbode SM, et al. Nutritional and antioxidant dispositions of sorghum/millet-based beverages indigenous to Nigeria. Food Sci. Nutr. 2014;2:597–604.
Akin-Idowu PE, Ibitoye DO, Ademoyegun OT, Adeniyi OT. Chemical composition of the dry fruit of Tetrapleura tetraptera and its potential impact on human health. J. Herbsspices Med. Plants. 2011;17: 52–61.
Igwe OU, Akabuike HC. Free radical scavenging activity, phytochemistry and antimicrobial properties of Tetrapleura tetraptera Seeds. International Research Journal of Chemistry and Chemical Sciences. 2016;3(2):037-042.
Assob JCN, HLF Kamga, HLF Nsagha DS, et al., “Antimicrobial and toxicological activities of five medicinal plant species from Cameroon Traditional Medicine,” BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2011;11:70.
Irondi EA, Oboh G, Agboola SO, Boligon AA, Athayde ML Phenolics extract of Tetrapleura tetraptera fruit inhibits xanthine oxidase and Fe2+-induced lipid peroxidation in the kidney, liver, and lungs tissues of rats in vitro. Food Sci. Hum. Wellness. 2016;5:17–23.
Irondi A, Anokam K, Chukwuma P. Phenological variation in the in-vitro antioxidant properties and alpha-amylase inhibitory activity of Tetrapleura tetraptera Pod. Int. J. Pharm. Sci. Drug Res. 2013;5: 108–112.
Koma OS, Olawumi OO, Godwin EU. Phytochemical screening, in-vitro antimicrobial activity and antioxidant characteristics of Tetrapleura tetraptera extracts. European Journal of Medicinal Plants. 2016;17(2):1-10.
Udourioh GA, Etokudoh MF. Essential oils and fatty acids composition of dry fruits of Tetrapleura tetraptera. Journal of Applied Science and Environmental Management. 2014;18: 419–424.
Olajuyigbe OO, Afolayan AJ. In vitro inhibitory effects of the ethanol extract of Tetrapleura tetraptera (Schum and Thonn.) Taub. against multidrug resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Kragujevac J. Sci. 2018;40:193-204.
Ogunsile BO, Seyinde DO, Salako BA. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles from leaf extracts of Tetrapleura tetraptera and its antimicrobial activity IOP Conf. Ser: Mater Sci Eng. 2020;805012032.