Main Article Content
The main aim of this study was to find out the comparative effects of 6 weeks moderate intensity aerobic exercises (MIAE) and progressive resistance exercise (PRE) on bone mineral density and weight of people living with HIV/AIDS in Alex-Ekwueme Federal University Teaching Hospital Ebonyi State. The study adopted quasi experimental research design. The population of the study was 60 HIV/AIDS patients that attended HIV clinics at AE-FUTHA which formed the 58 sample size for the study after two people dropped from the control group. Simple random sampling technique was adopted for the study. Heel Densitometer (X-rite 331C) and Omron BF 400 was the instrument used for data collection of BMD and weight respectively. Mean, standard deviation and ANCOVA were used to analyze the data obtained. The instruments were not validated because they are standard. The reliability coefficient obtained from the pilot study was 0.835 and 0.994 for BMD and WEIGHT respectively. The major findings revealed that PRE had more effect than MIAE on BMD and Weight.
PeÂrez CCGA, Zech P, Schuch F, Wolfarth B, Rapp M, Heiβel A. Effects of aerobic and resistance exercise alone or combined on strength and hormone outcomes for people living with HIV. A meta-analysis. PLoS ONE. 2018;13(9): e0203384. Available:https://doi.org/10.1371/journal. pone.0203384
O’Brien K, Tynan AM, Glazier RH. Effectiveness of aerobic exercise for adults living with HIV: Systematic review and meta-analysis using the Cochrane Collaboration protocol. BMC Infectious Diseases. 2016;16:182.
Department of Health & Human Services. Resistance training: Health benefits; 2020. Available:www.betterhealth.vic.gov
Southwest General Health Center. Bone health for women in the greater Cleveland area; 2020. Available:https://www.swgeneral.com
Josiel AA, Rafael AA, Ezequiel MG, Gil GJ. Influence of physical training on bone mineral density in healthy young adults: A systematic review. Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. 2019;65(8). Available:http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1806-92220.127.116.112
World Health Organization. Bone mass measurement: What the numbers mean. National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Disease; 2020. Available:https://www.bones.nih.gov
Arazi H, Samadpour M, Eghbali E. The effects of concurrent training (aerobic resistance) and milk consumption on some markers of bone mineral density in women with osteoporosis. BMC Women's Health. 2018;18:202. Available:https://doi.org/10.1186/s12905-018-0694-x
Marques EA, Mota J, Carvalho J. Exercise effects on bone mineral density in older adults: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. AGE. 2012;34:1493–1515. Research Centre in Physical Activity, Health and Leisure, Faculty of Sport, University of Porto, Portugal. DOI: 10.1007/s11357-011-9311-8
Siqiang G. Experimental study of aerobic exercise on the weight loss effect of obese female college students. Biomedical Research, Special Issue. 2018;S193-S196. College of Physical Education and Health, Zhaoqing University, Zhaoqing 526061, Guangdong, PR China.
Mohamed AE, Marwa MI, Sobhy MA. Effect of resistance and aerobic exercises on bone mineral density, muscle strength and functional ability in children with hemophilia. The Egyptian Journal of Medical Human Genetics. 2014;15:139–147.
Andreoli A, Celi M, Volpe LS, Sorge R, Tarantino U. Long-term effect of exercise on bone mineral density and body composition in post-menopausal ex-elite athletes: A retrospective study. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2012;66(1): 69–74.
Yaghoobi H, Hossein-Abadi ST, Mohammadi S, Sardashti S, Seddigheh A. Comparison of the effect of aerobic and resistance training on cardiovascular risk factors in Parkinson's Women. The Open Nursing Journal. 2019;13. Available:https://opennursingjournal.com
Mello TD, Piano AD, Carnier J, Sanches PD, Correa FA, Tock L, Ernandes RMY, Tufik S, Damaso RA. Long-term effects of aerobic plus resistance training on the metabolic syndrome and adiponectinemia in obese adolescents. PubMed. National Centre for Biotechnology Information; 2011.
Gresele P, Falcinelli E, Sebastiano M, Baldelli F. Endothelial and platelet function alterations in HIV-infected patients. Journal of the Department of Exercise Science. Arnold School of Public Health, University of South Carolina, Columbia; 2012;129(3): 301-8.
William HB, Kathleen R, Gregory T, Adam H. Weakness and fatigue. Frankel Cardiovascular Center; 2020. Available:www.umcvc.org
Crothers K, Rodriguez CV, Wongtrakool C. Association of HIV infection and immune activation with decline in lung function: An abstract. Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections. 2014;774.
Kovacs JA, Hoffman. Low platelet count in HIV. Identification of dynamically distinct subpopulations of T lymphocytes that are differentially affected by HIV. Journal of Experimental Medicine. 2011;194:1731-41.
McComsey AG, Tebas P, Shane E, Yin TM, Overton TE, Huang SJ, Aldrovandi GM, Cardoso WS, Santana LJ, Brown TT. Bone disease in HIV infection: A practical review and recommendations for HIV care providers. CID. 2010;51. Available:https://doi.org/10.1086/656412
MacArthur RD, Saravolatz LD, Dupont HL. Etiology and pharmacologic management of noninfectious diarrhea in HIV-infected individuals in the highly active antiretroviral therapy era. Clinical Infectious Diseases. 2012;55(6):860-867. Available:https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/cis544
National Agency for the Control of AIDS. The Prevalence and infectivity and transmission of HIV/AIDS in Nigeria; 2019. Available:email@example.com:Social media
Mohar D, Dulbarg CS. Statistical power, sample size and their reporting in randomized controlled trials. JAMA. 1994;272:122–4.
Glenn S. Statistics how to: Statistics for the rest of us!; 2016. Available:statisticshowto.datasciencentral.com
Nuremberg declarations code. The Doctors trial: The medical case of the subsequent Nuremberg proceedings. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Online Exhibition; 2019. Available:https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nuremberg_Code
Kebrit D, Hailu E. The relationship between physical exercise and HIV AIDS, a systematic review. International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research. 2017;8(11):442. ISSN 2229-5518.
United States Department of Veterans Affairs. Exercise and HIV: Entire Lesson; 2019. Available:https://www.hiv.va.gov/patients/daily/exercise/single-page.asp