Main Article Content
Aim: The study aimed to determine the awareness of causes and health risks associated with high blood cholesterol (HBC) among men in Awka-Etiti, Nigeria.
Study Design: A descriptive survey research design was used.
Place and Duration: Awka-Etiti, Anambra State, Nigeria in 2019.
Methodology: The sample of the study comprised three hundred adult men aged 25 and above. A structured questionnaire was the main instrument used for data collection. Face validity was used to check for the validity of the instrument. The split-half method was used to check the reliability of the instrument and obtained a coefficient of 0.61.
Results: Generally there were low levels of awareness of causes (56%) and a moderate level of awareness for risks (65%) associated with HBC in the study area. Younger age and older age as well as higher educational attainment were identified determinants of better awareness of causes and associated risks of HBC. Significance test found associations between age and awareness of causes of HBC (P=.006); and age and awareness of associated risks of HBC (P=.001). There were no significant associations between marital status and awareness of causes of HBC (P=.221); and marital status and awareness of associated risks of HBC (P=.221).
Conclusion: There are still poor awareness levels of HBC among some minority groups in the study population. Public Health education and promotion of healthy lifestyles are recommended to reduce this burden.
Reiger S, Jardim TV, Abrahams- Gessel S, et al. Awareness, treatment, and control of dyslipidemia in rural South Africa: The HAALSI (Health and Aging in Africa: A Longitudinal Study of an INDEPTH Community in South Africa) study. PLoS One. 2017;12(10): 0187347.
Kuklina EV, Yoon PW, Keenan NL. Prevalence of coronary heart disease risk factors and screening for high cholesterol levels among young adults, United States, 1999–2006. The Annals of Family Medicine. 2010;8(4):327-333.
Bucholz EM, Rodday AM, Kolor K, Khoury MJ, de Ferranti SD. Prevalence and predictors of cholesterol screening, awareness, and statin treatment among US adults with familial hypercholesterolemia or other forms of severe dyslipidemia (1999–2014). Circulation. 2018;137(21):2218-2230.
Senekal M, Seme Z, de Villiers A, Steyn NP. Health status of primary school educators in low socio-economic areas in South Africa. BMC Public Health. 2015;15(1):186.
Awosan K, Ibrahim M, Sabir A, Ejimodu P. Awareness and prevalence of risk factors of coronary heart disease among teachers and bankers in Sokoto, Nigeria. Med Med Sci. 2013;4(9):337-342.
Wunder C, Churin Y, Winau F, et al. Cholesterol glucosylation promotes immune evasion by Helicobacter pylori. Nature Medicine. 2006/09/01 2006; 12(9):1030-1038. DOI: 10.1038/nm1480
Lim SH, Kwon J-W, Kim N, et al. Prevalence and risk factors of Helicobacter pylori infection in Korea: Nationwide multicenter study over 13 years. BMC Gastroenterology. 2013;13(1): 104.
Muntner P, Levitan EB, Brown TM, et al. Trends in the prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of high low density lipoprotein-cholesterol among United States adults from 1999–2000 through 2009–2010. The American Journal of Cardiology. 2013;112(5):664-670.
Centers for disease control and prevention. Prevalence of cholesterol screening and high blood cholesterol among adults--United States, 2005, 2007, and 2009. MMWR Morbidity and mortality weekly report. 2012;61:697-702.
Bucholz EM, Gooding HC, de Ferranti SD. Awareness of cardiovascular risk factors in US young adults aged 18–39 years. American Journal of Preventive Medicine. 2018; 54(4):67-77.
Pilleron S, Aboyans V, Mbelesso P, et al. Prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension in older people in Central Africa: The EPIDEMCA study. Journal of the American Society of Hypertension. 2017;11(7):449-460.
Hopkins PN, Toth PP, Ballantyne CM, Rader DJ. Familial hypercholesterolemias: Prevalence, genetics, diagnosis and screening recommendations from the national lipid association expert panel on familial hypercholesterolemia. Journal of Clinical Lipidology. 2011;5(3):9-17.
National Population Commission. The Nigeria Population Census. 2006;23(2): 2011.
Lwanga SK, Lemeshow S, Organization WH. Sample size determination in health studies: A practical manual. World Health Organization; 1991.
Rodriguez CJ, Cai J, Swett K, et al. High Cholesterol awareness, treatment, and control among hispanic/latinos: Results From the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos. Journal of the American Heart Association. 2015; 4(7). DOI: 10.1161/jaha.115.001867
Abu-Saad K, Chetrit A, Eilat-Adar S, et al. Blood pressure level and hypertension awareness and control differ by marital status, sex, and ethnicity: A population-based study. American Journal of Hypertension. 2014;27(12):1511-1520.