Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2): What Can Africa Learn from Ongoing Research in Epidemiology, Clinical Manifestations, Chemotherapy and Prevention?

Main Article Content

Silas Lendzele Sevidzem
Aubin Armel Koumba
Christophe Roland Zinga- Koumba
Nonvignon Marius Kedote
Gaël Darren Maganga
Essé Elvire Agossou
Safiatou Niaré- Doumbo
Bitsha-Kitime Dieudoné Kabkia
Luc Salako Djogbenou
Genevieve Lydie Acapovi- Yao
Idrissa Sarr
Julien Zahouli Bi Zahouli
Chimène Nze- Nkoghé
Rodrigue Mintsa- Nguema
Athanase Badolo
Emmanuel Kamba Mebourou
Jacques François Mavoungou
Fatou Bintou Sarr

Abstract

The world is experiencing an outbreak due to the new and mysterious SARS-CoV-2. Information regarding its source and transmission dynamics in different environments as well as medications for its prevention and cure is weak. This review seeks to document on the epidemiology, clinical signs, control, prevention, and present some perspectives for SARS-CoV-2 research in Africa. There are geographical differences in morbidity and mortality rates of this disease all over the world. The scientific community strongly reject claims regarding the fact that the virus has been genetically manipulated, but supports the theory that it has a natural origin from animal host as any other emerging viral disease. Although animals are thought to be the original source of global spill over, person-to-person transmission is well comprehended. Transmission could be enhanced by symptomatic and asymptomatic individuals with high contaminations reported in dense urban environments. Scientific evidences from the Center for Disease Control (CDC) and other publications reported that contaminated surfaces and air could possibly be the underlying mechanism through which SARS-CoV-2 spreads. Cohort studies reveal that children as well as adults could be vulnerable to the disease, but others attribute it to health care workers, some risky habits (drinking and smoking) and comorbid individuals due to their immune suppressed status. There is no drug of choice for SARS-CoV-2, but clinical studies including several antiviral drugs are underway. Similarly, vaccine studies and clinical trial studies are ongoing. Because there is no medication, preventive measures such as Personal Protective Equipments (PPEs), ventilators, sanitation, social distancing, and quarantine are the gears globally used to curb the spread of this virus. The African continent does not have high morbidity and mortality compared to other continents that are highly affected. The following lessons could be learned by Africans from ongoing research: that the SARS-CoV-2 originated from an animal host, individuals could be infected irrespective of their age, sex, race, and origin, there is a broad spectrum of clinical signs and confirmatory diagnosis is required, there is no approved drug of choice, vaccine trials are ongoing and community-based prevention is required, the recommendations put in place by the Government and the WHO to curb the spread of this virus should be strictly followed. From the above lessons, a research project to study the ecological epidemiology of SARS-CoV-2 in tropical African settings by including the following aspects: socio-cultural, economic, and political characteristics as well as the evaluation of measures taken by the different countries to combat the disease is required.

Keywords:
SARS-CoV-2, epidemiology, clinical signs, chemotherapy, prevention, Africa

Article Details

How to Cite
Sevidzem, S. L., Koumba, A. A., Koumba, C. R. Z.-, Kedote, N. M., Maganga, G. D., Agossou, E. E., Doumbo, S. N.-, Kabkia, B.-K. D., Djogbenou, L. S., Yao, G. L. A.-, Sarr, I., Zahouli, J. Z. B., Nkoghé, C. N.-, Nguema, R. M.-, Badolo, A., Mebourou, E. K., Mavoungou, J. F., & Sarr, F. B. (2020). Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2): What Can Africa Learn from Ongoing Research in Epidemiology, Clinical Manifestations, Chemotherapy and Prevention?. Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, 18(6), 17-27. https://doi.org/10.9734/ajmah/2020/v18i630213
Section
Original Research Article

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