Family Structure and Literacy Level as Correlates of Post-traumatic Stress among Victims of Human Trafficking in Nigeria

Main Article Content

Afamefuna O. Okeke
Chisom E. Ogbonnaya

Abstract

Victims of human trafficking suffer a plethora of psychological problems and it has been one of much deliberation by governments and other human rights organizations. Thepresent study examined the family structure and literacy levels as predictors of Post-Traumatic stress among a group of selected victims of human trafficking. A cross-sectional survey design was adopted in the study. Accidental sampling technique was performed to select seventy-eight (78) victims of human trafficking who were in different zones of the National Agency for Trafficked Persons (NAPTIP). Post-traumatic Stress Scale, developed by Keane et al (1984) was used to gather necessary information for the study with Cronbach’s Alpha of .92. Three hypotheses were formulated as well as tested by using Pearson Product Moment Correlation and independent t-test analysis. The results showed that literacy level, [r (78) = .24; p > 0.05] and family structure [r (78) = .31; p > 0.01] were significantly correlates with Post-Traumatic Stress. Based on the findings, it is recommended that National Agency for Trafficked Persons should engage victims into therapeutic and educational programmes and using clinical interventions to help boost self-esteem, self-awareness and psycho-emotional development of these victims to reduce trauma-related problems associated with activities of human trafficking.

Keywords:
Family structure, literacy level and post-traumatic.

Article Details

How to Cite
Okeke, A. O., & Ogbonnaya, C. E. (2019). Family Structure and Literacy Level as Correlates of Post-traumatic Stress among Victims of Human Trafficking in Nigeria. Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, 17(1), 1-11. https://doi.org/10.9734/ajmah/2019/v17i130157
Section
Original Research Article

References

Omokhodion JO. Socialization in some Nigerian communities: Readings in Sociology of Education. Lagos, Nigeria: John Odionuwa Publishers; 1998.

Aluko GB, Alfa MO. Marriage and family. Appeared in Women in Nigeria Today, Zed Books Ltd; 1985.

World Health Organization. The ICD-10 classification of mental and behavioural disorders. World Health Organization, Geneva; 1992.

BOOK R. Post-traumatic Stress Disorder: The management of PTSD in adults and children in primary and secondary care. Quarterly Journal. 2005;70.

Gelder M, Harrison P, Cowen P. Shorter Oxford Textbook of Psychiatry (Fifth edition) Oxford University Press; 2006.

Galea S, Arijit N, Vlahor D. The Epidemiology of PTSD after disasters. New York; 2005.

Breslau N, Lucia VC, Davis GC. Partial PTSD versus full PTSD: An empirical of examination of associated impairment. Psychology Medicine Journal. 2004;34(7): 1205-1214.

Eghafona K. The bane of female trafficking in Nigeria: An examination of the role of the family. In Awaritefe, A (ed). Towards a sane society. Benin: Roma Publication; 2009.

Kenely B. Europe: Pledges harsher penalties for sex slave traffickers. Third World network; 2001.

UNODC. Measures to combat trafficking in Human Beings in Benin, Nigeria and Togo. United National Office of Drug and Crime, Italy; 2006.

Lawani AO, Ihenyen OF, Igberase O, Omoaregba J. Mental and behavioural disorders among female victims of human trafficking presenting in a Nigerian Psychiatric Hospital. In Awaritefe, A (Ed). Towards a sane society, Benin City: Roma Publication; 2009.

Hammed A, Ramanalthan R. Trafficking in women proceedings of the end trafficking in women campaign. Suzane Mubarak Women International Peace Movement Secretariat, Egypt; 2006.

IOM. New IOM figures on the Global scale of trafficking. Trafficking in Migrants Quarterly Bulletin. No; 2001.

United States Department of States Trafficking on Person Report; 2001.

Egede S. Challenges of globalization in fight against trafficking in persons, paper presented at the international colloquium on slavery, Human Trade and its consequence held in Osun State; 2010.

Morka G. Human trafficking: The scourge of our time. NAPTIP News, 2009;2(I).

Osakwe G. Trafficking in Girls: The way forward a research report. In Awaitefe, A (ed). Towards a sane society. Benin City: Roma Publication; 2009.

Osakwe G. Saying no to human trafficking, in girl’s power. Newsletter of Girls Power Initiative (GPI). Nigeria. 2007;13(2).

Fairbank JA, Brown TA. Current behavioural approaches to the treatment of PTSD. The Behaviour Therapist. 1987;3: 57-64.

Davison G, Neale J. Abnormal Psychology. New York: John Wiley and Sons. 2001; 360–385.

Connor KM, Butterfield MI. Post-traumatic stress Disorder. Focus. 2003;1(3):247-262.

Rossenman S. Truman and PTSD in Australia; findings in the population sample of the Australian national survey of mental health and wellbeing. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry. 2002;36, 515-520.

Maercker A, Michael T, Fehm L, Becker ES, Margraf J. Age at traumatization as a predictor of PTSD or major depression in young women. British Journal of Psychiatry. 2004;184:482–487.

Farley M, Bavel I, Kivemire M, Sezquin U. Prostitution in 5 countries: Violence and PSTD. Feminism & Psychology. 1998;8(4): 405-426.

Farley M, Melissa. Prostitution and trafficking in nine countries. An update in violence and PTSD. Journal of Trauma Practice. 2003;2:33-74.

Tsutsumi A, Izutsu T, Poudyal AK, Kato S, Marui E. Survivors of human trafficking in Nepal. Social Science Medicine. 2008; 66(8):1841-7.

Butcher JN, Dahlstrom WG, Graham JR, Tellegan AM, Kaemmer B. Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2): Manual for administration and scoring. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press; 1989.

Omoluabi PF. Standardization of the psychophysiological symptoms checklist. Nigerian Journal of Psychology, 6 & 7 (1&2). 1987;118-128.

Ayonuwe TM. Assessment and management of Post-Traumatic Stress reaction among bomb blast victims. Unpublished M.Sc., research project, Department of Psychology, University of Lagos; 2003.

Keane JM, Malloy PF, Fairbank JA. Empirical Development of an MMPI subscale for the assessment of combat-related PTSD. Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology. 1984;52:88-89.

Derogatis LR, Lipman RS, Covi L. SCL-90 an out-patient rating scale. Preliminary report. Psychopharmacological Bulletin. 1973;9:13-28.

Caffo E, Belaise C. Psychological aspects of traumatic injury in children and adolescents. Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. 2003;12(3):493–535.

Green BB, Korol M, Grace MC, Vary MG, Leonard AC, Gleser GC, Smitson-Cohen. Children and disaster: age, gender and parental effects on PTSD symptoms. Journal of American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychatry. 1991;30(6):945-951.

UNICRI/UNODC. Programme of action against trafficking in minors and young women from Nigeria into Italy, for purpose of sexual exploitation. United National Office of Drug and Crime, Italy; 2003.

Nwogu V. Trafficking of Persons to Europe: The Perspective of Nigeria as a sending country. Paper presented at the conference on Trafficking of human beings and migration, a human rights approach organized by Antislavery International; 2005.

Chandra–Mouli V. Drawing, working and supporting communities in sexual health promotion. Sexual Health Exchange. 1999; 2:1-3.

Anaeto J. Handbook on access to justice for victims of Trafficking in Nigeria, for the validation workshop on the handbook on access to justice for victims of human trafficking, September 12th, UN House, Abuja; 2008.