Pattern of Hypertension in Fayoum Governorate

Main Article Content

Eman M. Ezzat
Maher A. Al Amir
Abdelrahman A. Ewais


Background: Hypertension is a preventable cause of premature death worldwide. Data from the Egyptian National Hypertension Project (NHP) revealed that hypertension is a significant problem among Egyptians. We studied the prevalence of hypertension, related risk factors and its complications in Fayoum governorate.

Patients and Methods: This study included 2800 Egyptian participants aged 18 to 60 years old from Fayoum governorate selected randomly from different places in Fayoum governorate. Blood pressure was measured for them. Re-measurement for those with BP measurements ≥ 140/90 was done with a further assessment. Known hypertensive patients were thoroughly evaluated by clinical examination and laboratory investigations.

Results: Our survey revealed that the prevalence rate of hypertension in Fayoum governorate was 28.4% (19.3% were aware and 9.1% were first diagnosed and unaware of their hypertension), 11% of the study population were pre-hypertensives. Poorly controlled hypertensive patients were 59.9%. Of all hypertensive patients, 63.4% of them were females, 87.9% of them were overweight and obese, while 26.3% of them had diabetes mellitus. Also, 41% of known hypertensive patients had complications.

Conclusion and Recommendations: There is a high prevalence rate of hypertension in Fayoum governorate. More knowledge is required to reveal the reasons behind this high prevalence in addition to the low levels of control and awareness of hypertension, to put the appropriate strategy to improve the rate of control, awareness, and quality of life of hypertensive patients in Egypt.

Article Details

How to Cite
Ezzat, E. M., Amir, M. A. A., & Ewais, A. A. (2019). Pattern of Hypertension in Fayoum Governorate. Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, 17(1), 1-8.
Original Research Article


Noncommunicable diseases country profiles. Geneva: World Health Organization; Licence: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO; 2018.

Yusuf S, Hawken S, Ôunpuu S, Dans T, Avezum A, Lanas F, et al. Effect of potentially modifiable risk factors associated with myocardial infarction in 52 countries (the INTERHEART study): Case-control study. Lancet. 2004;364:937–952.

Lewington S, Clarke R, Qizilbash N, Peto R, Collins R; Prospective studies collaboration. Age-specific relevance of usual blood pressure to vascular mortality: a meta-analysis of individual data for one million adults in 61 prospective studies. Lancet. 2002;360:1903.

Blood Pressure Lowering Treatment Trialists' Collaboration. Turnbull F, Neal B, Ninomiya T, Algert C, Arima H, Barzi F, et al. Effects of different regimens to lower blood pressure on major cardiovascular events in older and younger adults: meta-analysis of randomised trials. BMJ. 2008; 336:1121.

Whaley-Connell AT, Sowers JR, Stevens LA, McFarlane SI, Shlipak MG, Norris KC, et al. Kidney Early evaluation program investigators. CKD in the United States: Kidney Early Evaluation Program (KEEP) and National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2004. Am J Kidney Dis. 2008;51:S13.

Ministry of Health and Population [Egypt], El-Zanaty and Associates [Egypt], and ICF International. Egypt health issues survey 2015. Cairo, Egypt and Rockville, Maryland, USA: Ministry of Health and Population and ICF International; 2015.

Ibrahim MM. Problem of hypertension in Egypt. The Egyptian Heart Journal. 2013; 65(3):233-234.

Mancia G, Fagard R, Narkiewicz K, Redon J, Zanchetti A, Böhm M. et al. ESH/ESC Guidelines for the management of arterial hypertension. European Heart Journal. 2013;34:2159-2219.

Salem, H, Hasan, D, Eameash, A, Abd El-Mageed H, Hasan S, Ali R. Worldwide prevalence of hypertension: A pooled meta-analysis of 1670 studies in 71 countries with 29.5 million participants. Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 2018;71(11):A1819.

ElShazly HM, Hegazy NN. Socioeconomic determinants affecting the quality of life among diabetic and hypertensive patients in a rural area, Egypt. Journal of family Medicine and Primary Care. 2017; 6(1):141.

Hasan DM, Emeash AH, Mustafa SB, Abdelazim GE, El-din AA. Hypertension in Egypt: A systematic review. Current Hypertension Reviews. 2014;10:134-141.

Abd Elaziz KM, Dewedar SA, Sabbour S, El Gafaary MM, Marzouk DM, Aboul Fotouh A, et al. Screening for hypertension among adults: Community outreach in Cairo, Egypt. Journal of Public Health. 2015;37(4):701-706.

Ikeda N, Sapienza D, Guerrero R, Aekplakorn W, Naghavi M, Mokdad A, et al. Control of hypertension with medication: A comparative analysis of national surveys in 20 countries. Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2014;92:10-19C.

Mowafi M, Khadr Z, Kawachi I, Subramanian S, Hill A, Bennett GG. Socioeconomic status and obesity in Cairo, Egypt: A heavy burden for all. Journal of epidemiology and global health 2014;4(1):13-21.
DOI: 10.1016/j.jegh.2013.09.001

El-Zanaty F, Way A. Egypt demographic and health survey 2008. Cairo, Egypt: Ministry of Health, El-Zanaty and Associates and Macro International; 2009.

Arafa NAS, Ez-Elarab HS. Epidemiology of prehypertension and hypertension among Egyptian adults. The Egyptian Journal of Community Medicine. 2011;29(1):1-18.

Elbaz WF, Eissa SS, Mohamed RA, Aly KN, Abdel hady BM, Reda TM. Essential Hypertension among Egyptian Adults. Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine. 2015;61:643-52.
DOI: 10.12816/0018767

Mills K, Bundy JD, Kelly TN, Reed JE, Kearney PM, Reynolds K, et al. Global disparities of hypertension prevalence and control: A systematic analysis of population-based studies from 90 countries. Circulation. 2016;134(6):441-450.

Yusuf S, Hawken S, Ounpuu S, Bautista L, Franzosi MG, Commerford P, et al. INTERHEART Study Investigators. Obesity and the risk of myocardial infarction in 27,000 participants from 52 countries: A case-control study. Lancet. 2005; 366(9497):1640-9.

Hyun Jin K, Seok Jun Y, In Hwan O, Jae HL, Young AK. Medication adherence and the occurrence of complications in patients with newly diagnosed hypertension. Korean Circ J. 2016;46(3):384–393.
DOI: 10.4070/kcj.2016.46.3.384