Prevalence and Associated Factors of Urinary Schistosomiasis among Basic School Children in the Akyemansa District, Ghana

Main Article Content

Albert Abaka-Yawson
Christian Hotorvi
Enos Amoako Oduro
Philip Apraku Tawiah
Solomon Sosu Quarshie
Albert Awuku Kumi
Kingsley Arhin-Wiredu

Abstract

Background: Globally, urinary schistosomiasis has devastating implications on school children. It predisposes them to dysuria, haematuria among others which can negatively influence their academic performance. This study determined the prevalence and associated risk factors of urinary schistosomiasis among basic school children in the Akyemansa district. 

Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study design using multi-stage sampling was used to enroll 504 basic school children from six communities of the Akyemansa District into study. Structured questionnaires were used to gather information on risk factors. Urine samples were collected and microscopically examined for the presence of Schistosoma haematobium (SH) ova. The observed ova were then quantified as light or heavy.

Results: Prevalence of SH infection among school children in Akyemansa District was 10.32% [95% CI: 7.80 -13.31%]. Out of 52 participants who were infected, 69.2% had light infection whilst the rest had heavy infection. Female participants were less likely to be infected with SH than males [OR=0.47; 95% CI: 0.23-0.97], children who do not stay by the river/stream were also less likely to be infected with SH compared to those who lived near waterbodies [OR=0.35; 95% CI: 0.17-0.72]. Additionally, participants who did not play around water bodies were also less likely to be infected with SH compared to those who did [OR=0.17; 95% CI= 0.04-0.71; p=0.015]. However, inhabitants of Kotokuom were more likely to be infected compared to those in Pawuda [OR=8.54; 95% CI: 1.91-38.27; p=0.005]

Conclusion: The prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis among basic school children in the Akyemansa district was found to be 10.32% [95% CI: 7.80 -13.31%]. Gender, staying around river/ stream, playing at river/ stream and habitation of participants were significantly associated with the prevalence of Schistosoma haematobium infection. The study therefore recommends that periodic drug administration and a comprehensive intervention strategy should be designed and implemented to reduce schistosomiasis prevalence.

Keywords:
Urinary schistosomiasis, school children, Akyemansa District

Article Details

How to Cite
Abaka-Yawson, A., Hotorvi, C., Oduro, E., Tawiah, P., Quarshie, S., Kumi, A., & Arhin-Wiredu, K. (2019). Prevalence and Associated Factors of Urinary Schistosomiasis among Basic School Children in the Akyemansa District, Ghana. Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, 15(4), 1-10. https://doi.org/10.9734/ajmah/2019/v15i430128
Section
Original Research Article

References

Bruun B, Aagaard-Hansen J. The social context of schistosomiasis and its control. Geneva: WHO; 2008.

Thétiot-Laurent SJB, Robert A, Meunier B. Schistomiasis chemotherapy. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl. 2013;52(31):7936-56.
DOI: 10.1002/anie.201208390

Gryseels B, Polman K, Clerinx J, Kestens L. The Lancet. 2006;368(9541,8):1106–111.

Aryeetey ME, Wagatsuma Y, Yeboah G, Asante M, Mensah G, Nkrumah FK, Kojima S. Urinary schistosomiasis in southern Ghana: Prevalence and morbidity assessment in three (defined) rural areas drained by the Densu river. Parasitol Parasitology International. 2004;9(2):155–163.
DOI:10.1016/s1383-5769(00)00044-1

Stephenson L. The impact of schistosomiasis on human nutrition. Parasitology. 1993;107:107–23.

Augusto G, Magnussen P, Kristensen T, Appleton C, Vennervald B. The influence of transmission season on parasitological cure rates and intensity of infection after praziquantel treatment of Schistosoma haematobium infected School children in Mozambique. Parasitology. 2009;136: 1771-1779.

Bishop HG, Akoh RI. Risk factors, symptoms and effects of urinary schistosomiasis on anthropometric indices of school children in Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria. Open Access Journal of Science. 2018;2(1):61-65.

Ahmed A, Abbas H, Mansour F, Gasim G, Adam I. Schistosoma haematobium infec-tions among school children in central Sudan one year after treatment with prazi-quantel. Parasite and vectors. 2012;5:108.

Ayeh-Kumi PF, Obeng-Nkrumah N, Baidoo D, Teye J, Asmah RH. High levels of urinary schistosomiasis among children in Bunuso, a rural community in Ghana: an urgent call for increased surveillance and control programs. J. Parasit Dis. 2013;39(4):613-623.

Banwat M, Ogbonna C, Daboer J, Chingle M, Envuladu E, Audu S, Lar L. Prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis in school-aged children in Langai Plateau state: Pre and Post- intervention. Niger J Med. 2012;21(2).

Nkengazong L, Njioku F, Asonganyi T. Two years impact of single Praziquantel treatment on urinary schistosomiasis in the Barombi Kotto Focus, South West Cameroon. J. Parasitol. Vector Biol. 2013; 5(6):83-89.

Jordan P, Webbe G, Sturrock R. Epidemiology in Human schistosomiasis. Wallingford, UK: CAB International; 1999.

Remoue F, To Van D, Schacht AM, Picquet M, Garraud O, Vercruysse J, Riveau G. Gender-dependent specific immune response during chronic human Schistosomiasis haematobia. Clin Exp Immunol. 2013;124:62-68.

Tohon Z, Mainassara H, Garba A, Ibrahim ML, Mahamane A, Bosqué- Oliva E, et al. Controlling schistosomiasis: Significant decrease of anaemia prevalence one year after a single dose of Praziquantel in Nigerien School children; 2008.

King C, Dangerfield-Cha M. The unacknowledged impact of schisto-somiasis. Chronic IIIn. 2008;4:65-79.

Ndyomugyenyi R, Minjas J. Urinary Schistosomiasis in school children in Dar-es- Salam, Tanzania, and the factors influencing its transmission. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 2001;95(7):697-706.

Ugbomoiko U, Ofoezie I, Okoye I, Heukelbach J. Factors associated with urinary schistosomiasis in two peri-urban communities in South- western Nigeria. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 2010;104(5):409-19.

van der Werf M, de Vlas SB, Looman C, Nagelkerke N, Habbema J. Quantification of clinical morbidity associated with schistosome infection in sub-Saharan Africa. Acta Trop. 2003; 86(2–3):125–39.

Tay SC, Amankwa R, Gbedema SY. Prevalence of Schistosoma Haematobium infection in Ghana: A retrospective case study in Kumasi. Int J Parasitol Res. 2011;3(2):48-52.