Screening for Hypertension and Diabetes in an Underserved Population through Community Outreach; A Case of Rural Community in Enugu State, Nigeria

Main Article Content

C. Onodugo Obinna
C. Aniwada Elias
P. Onodugo Nkeiru


Introduction: Hypertension and Diabetes are the commonest co-morbidity of each other and are among the principal cause of the burden of non-communicable diseases in developing countries. It is important to identify patients with these conditions early in the disease process. This study was

to determine the prevalence of elevated Blood Pressure (BP) and elevated Fasting Blood Sugar (FBS) as well as relate it to the characteristics of the study participants in a rural community in Enugu State, Nigeria.

Methods: Community based cross-sectional study in form of outreach was done. The study was conducted over 1 week period among participants aged 18 years and above. Proforma was used in collecting information on characteristics of participants including age, sex and occupation. Measurements of BP, FBS and BMI were done. Chi square test and Binary Logistic Regression were used for analysis.

Results: Majority of participants were aged > 45 years 127(56.7%), and females 139(62.1%),Mean(SD) 46.89((21.84) Elevated BP 55(24.6%), elevated FBS 42(18.8%), both elevated BP and FBS. 13(5.8%). higher proportion of those aged > 45 years had elevated BP 51(92.7%) and elevated FBS 37(88.1%). More Females had elevated BP 35(63.6%) and elevated FBS 28(66.7%). Predictors were; age >45 years for elevated BP (AOR 18.4; 95% CI 5.7-59.5) and for have elevated FBS (AOR 8.9; 95% CI 3.0-26.5).

Conclusion: Prevalence of raised BP and FBS as well as co-morbid condition was high. It was more among females and older age. Age was a predictor of both raised BP and FBS. This calls for interventional programmes that will assist in limiting the increasing burden of the diseases in rural communities.

Raised blood pressure, raised blood sugar, screening, outreach, rural community

Article Details

How to Cite
Obinna, C., Elias, C., & Nkeiru, P. (2019). Screening for Hypertension and Diabetes in an Underserved Population through Community Outreach; A Case of Rural Community in Enugu State, Nigeria. Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, 15(2), 1-9.
Original Research Article


World Health Organization World health report: Global status report on noncom-municable disease; 2014.


[Accessed on 12/2/2019]

Kengne AP, Awah PK, Fezeu L, Mbanya JC. The burden of high blood pressure and related risk factors in urban sub-Saharan Africa: Evidences from Douala in Cameroon. Afr Health Sci. 2007;7(1):38–44.

Isara AR, Okundia PO. The burden of hypertension and diabetes mellitus in rural communities in southern Nigeria. Pan African Medical Journal. 2015;20:103.

International Diabetes Federation. Diabetes Fact Sheet; 2018.

[Accessed on 12/2/2019]

World Health Organization. World health statistics 2012 report. WHO, Geneva; 2012.

International Diabetes Federation. Diabetes fact sheet.

[Accessed on 12/2/2019]

Mukadas AO, Misbau U. Incidence and patterns of cardiovascular diseases in north western Nigeria. Niger Med J. 2009; 50(3):55-57.

Akinkugbe OO. Non communicable diseases in Nigeria: National survey (final report) on hypertension, coronary heart disease, diabetes mellitus, G6PD deficiency and anaemia. National Expert Committee on Non-Communicable Disease. Federal Ministry of Health and Social Services, Lagos.

Chinenye S, Ogbera AO. Socio-cultural aspects of diabetes mellitus in Nigeria. J Soc Health Diabetes. 2013;1(1):15-21.

Omorogiuwa A, Oaikhena GA, Okioya P, Akubueze D, Owobu E, Enahoro I, et al. Diabetes mellitus: Prevalence amongst University staff in southern Nigeria and attitude towards routine glycemic/ glucosuric checkup. Int J Biomed & Hlth Sci. 2010;6(1):25-29.

Nyenwe EA, Odia OJ, Ihekwaba AE, Ojule A, Babatunde S. Type 2 diabetes in adult Nigerians: a study of its prevalence in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2003;62:177-185.

Ekwunife OI, Aguwa CN. A meta analysis of prevalence rate of hypertension in Nigerian populations. Journal of Public Health and Epidemiology. 2011;3(13):604- 607.

Ogah OS, Okpechi I, Chukwuonye II, Akinyemi JO, Onwubere BJC, Falase AO, Stewart S, Sliwa K. Blood pressure, prevalence of hypertension and hyper-tension related complications in Nigerian Africans: A review. World J Cardiol. 2012; 4(12):327-340.

Buchan J, Couper I, Tangcharoensathien V, et al. Early implementation of WHO recommendations for the retention of health workers in remote and rural areas. Bull World Health Organ. 2013;91(11): 834–840.

Ulasi II, Ijoma CK, Onwubere BJ, Arodiwe E, Onodogo O, Okafor C. High prevalence and low awareness of hypertension in a market population in Enugu, Nigeria. Int J Hypertens. 2011;869675.

Ahaneku GI, Osuji CU, Anisiuba BC, Ikeh VO, Oguejiofor OC, Ahaneku JE. Evaluation of blood pressure and indices of obesity in a typical rural community in eastern Nigeria. Ann Afr Med. 2011;10(2): 120-126.

Onwubere BJ, Ejim EC, Okafor CI, Emehel A, Mbah AU, et al. Pattern of blood pressure indices among residents of a rural community in South East Nigeria. Int J Hypertens. 2011;621074.

Sahraki R, Mirshekari M, Sahraki H, Mohammadi AR, Sahraki M, Khazaei Feizabad E. Hypertension among 30+ year-old people in Zahedan (Southeast of Iran). Shiraz E Med J. 2011;12(3):129–34.

Sarry El-Din A, Erfan M, Kandeel W, Kamal S, El Banna R, Fouad W. Prevalence of pre-hypertension and hypertension in a sample of egyptian adults and its relation to obesity. Aust J Basic Appl Sci. 2012;6(13):481–9.

Shapo L, Pomerleau J, McKee M. Epidemiology of hypertension and associated cardiovascular risk factors in a country in transition: A population based survey in Tirana City, Albania. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2003;57(9):734–9.

Manandhar K, Koju R, Sinha NP, Humagain S. Prevalence and associated risk factors of hypertension among people aged 50 years and more in Banepa Municipality, Nepal. Kathmandu Univ Med J (KUMJ). 2012;10(39):35–8.

Oumar Bâ, Youssouf Camara, Ichaka Menta, et al. Hypertension and associated factors in rural and urban areas Mali: Data from the step 2013 survey. International Journal of Hypertension. 2018;Article ID 6959165:7. Available:

Awoke A, Awoke T, Alemu S, Megabiaw B. Prevalence and associated factors of hypertension among adults in Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia: A community based cross-sectional study. BMC Cardiovascular Disorders. 2012;12:113

Abebe SM, Berhane Y, Worku A, Getachew A. Prevalence and associated factors of hypertension: A crossectional community based study in Northwest Ethiopia. PLoS One. 2015;10(4): e0125210.

Gebreselassie KZ, Padyab M. Epidemiology of hypertension stages in two countries in sub-sahara africa: Factors associated with hypertension stages. International Journal of Hypertension. 2015;12.

Ajayi IO, Sowemimo IO, Akpa OM, Ossai NE. Prevalence of hypertension and associated factors among residents of Ibadan-North Local Government Area of Nigeria. Nig J Cardiol. 2016;13:67-75.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National diabetes fact sheet: National estimates and general information on diabetes and prediabetes in the United States. Atlanta: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; 2011.

Suastika K, Dwipayana P, Saraswati IMR, Kuswardhani T, Astika N, Putrawan IB, Matsumoto K, Kajiwara N, Taniguchi H. Relationship between age and metabolic disorder in the population of Bali. J Clin Ge rontol Geriatrics. 2011;30:1-6.

Ko GT, Wai HP, Tang JS. Effects of age on plasma glucose levels in non-diabetic Hong Kong Chinese. Croat Med J. 2006; 47(5):709-13.

National Center for Health Statistics. Health, United States: With special feature on death and dying. Washington DC: US Government Printing Office; 2010.
Available: 2011

[Accessed on 12/2/2019]

Suastika K, Dwipayana P, Semadi MS, Kuswardhani TA. Age is an important risk factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases; 2006.
Available: [Accessed on 12/2/2019]